TIENGANH10 - TIET 13 - UNIT 2 YOUR BODY AND YOU - Language 3

                                                                                                              Week : 5         -   Period: 13

 

     UNIT 1: FAMILY LIFE

     Lesson: Language 3 – Grammar

 

GRAMMAR: THE PASSIVE (Thể bị động)

 

 

I. Theory:

a. DEFINITION(Định nghĩa)

     - Active sentences (Câu chủ động): Câu chủ động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật thực hiện hành động.

Ex: They built the house in this village in 1486.

     - Passive sentences (Câu bị động): Câu bị động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật nhận hoặc chịu tác động của hành động.

Ex: The house was built in this village in 1486.

     b. PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION (Cách đổi sang câu bị động)

     - B1 : Lấy tân ngữ của câu chủ động (active) làm chủ ngữ của câu bị động (passive).

                    Active :                     S                                       VA                                  O

 

                   Passive :                     S                           VP (to be + V3/p.p)                           by + Object

    

     - B2: Đổi động từ chủ động (VA) thành động từ bị động (V­P)

TENSES

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

1. Present Simple

(hiện tại đơn)

S +V(s / es)

People speak English here.

S + am / is / are + p.p

English is spoken here.

2. Past Simple

(quá khứ đơn)

S + V2 / Ved

Tim wrote the letter.

S + was / were + p.p

The letter was written by Tim.

3. Present Continuous

(hiện tại tiếp diễn)

S + am / is / are + V-ing

They are painting the house.

S + am / is / are + being + p.p

The house is being painted.

4. Past Continuous

(quá khứ tiếp diễn)

S + was / were + V-ing

She was doing the homework at that time yesterday.

S + was / were + being + p.p

Her homework was being done at that time yesterday.

5. Present Perfect

(hiện tại hoàn thành)

S + have / has + p.p

He hasn’t worn jackets for ages

S + have / has + been + p.p

Jackets haven’t been worn for ages.

6. Past Perfect

(quá khứ hoàn thành)

S + had + p.p

They had destroyed all the documents when they arrived.

S + had been + p.p

All the documents had been destroyed when they arrived.

7. Will/can/should/

may/might

S + will/ can.. + V(bare)

I will eat some hams.

S + will /can + be + p.p

Some hams will be eaten.

8. Be going to

S + be going to + V(bare)

Tom is going to repair this house next week.

S + be going to + be + p.p

This house is going to be repaired by Tom next week.

 

 

- B3: Chủ ngữ của câu chủ động thành tân ngữ của câu bị động và đứng trước nó là giới từ by.

Ex: The President presented the medals.

                                                   à The medals were presented by the President.

   + Chủ ngữ I, you, we, they, he, she, it, people, someone, somebody, nobody, no one thường được bỏ đi trong câu bị động.

Ex: Somebody left this purse in a classroom. à This purse was left in a classroom.

    + Nếu trong câu chủ động có chủ ngữ là nobody hay no one thì động từ trong câu bị động chia ở dạng phủ định

Ex: Nobody saw him leaving the room. à He wasn’t seen leaving the room.

     ù   Vị trí của các trạng từ trong câu bị động:

- Trạng từ chỉ cách thức (Adverb of manner): đứng giữa bepast participle.

            Ex: This problem has been carefully studied by the scientists.

- Trạng từ chỉ mức độ đứng sau trợ động từ đầu tiên.

       Ex: She had never been promoted if she wouldn’t have changed her job.

- Trạng từ hoặc cụm từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + object.

       Ex: The report was typed by the secretary this morning.

- Trạng từ hoặc cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + object.

       Ex: He was found in the forest by the police.             

 

II. EXERCISES.

Act.1. (5.p.18/textbook) Read the surprising facts about your body and complete the following sentences using the passive.

1. …….. is consumed by the brain.

2. …….. are damaged (extensively)

3. …….. is made up of around 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (7 octillion) atoms.

4. …….. is pumped through our body everyday (by the heart).

5. …….. are used to smile, (are used / used) to frown.

6. …….. are estimated to live on one square inch of our skin.

7. …….. are produced by humans only.

 

Act.2. (grammar/p.25/textbook) Underline the word in italics that best completes the sentence.

 

1. will become

2. are broken down and converted

3. is going

4. are stimulated

5. is issued

6. won’t

7. are supported by

8. is going to rain

 

Act.3. (Extra Ex.1) Supply the correct verb form using the passive.

1. Every day, the dishes (wash) ........... by Jane but today the washing-up (do) .......... by Jame.

2  The same discount (offer) .................. by this shop every month.

3. Human body (can/ support) ............. by the spine.

4. More than 10 pages (type) ................ so far.

5. That book (buy) ………. by Tom yesterday

 

KEY:

1. are washed/ is being done               2. is offered                 3. can be supported

4. have been typed                              5. was bought

Act.4. (Extra Ex.2. (p.15/ work book) Rewrite the following sentences using the passive.

1. They don't speak English in this country.

2. They will pick Danny up at the station.

3. Somebody built the house ten years ago.

4. She gave him a box full of chocolate.

5. The teacher told them a funny story.

KEY:

1. English is not spoken in this country.

2. Danny will be picked up at the station

3. The house was built ten years ago.

4. He was given a box full of chocolate. / A box full of chocolate was given to him.

5. They were told a funny story. / A funny story was told to them (by the teacher).

HOMEWORK:

- Review the theory of the passive.

  • Redo Exercises.
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