UNIT 2: URBANISATION
LESSON: READING 1– Urbanisation and its causes
Warm – up: Crossword
Act. 1: New words and expressions.
1. occur (v) /əˈkɜː(r) /(especially of accidents and unexpected events) to happen (xảy ra)
Ex: An accident involving over ten vehicles has occurred in the east-bound lane.
2. developed country (n.phr.) /dɪˈveləpt ˈkʌntri/: industrialized country/ advanced country (nước công nghiệp, nước phát triển, nước tiên tiến)
Ex. Switzerland is one of the developed countries in the world.
3. massive (a) /ˈmæsɪv/: very large in size, amount, or number(to lớn, có quy mô lớn)
→ on a massive scale/ɒn əˈmæsɪv skeɪl/: (trong phạm vi lớn; quy mô lớn)
Ex. People migrate to urban areas on a massive scale for many reasons.
4. seek (v)/siːk/: to try to find or get something, especially something that is not a physical object (tìm kiếm)
Ex. “Are you actively seeking jobs?”, she asked.
5. proportion (n) /prəˈpɔː(r)ʃn/ : the number or amount of a group or part of something when compared to the whole (tỉ lệ)
Ex. Children make up a large proportion of the world’s population.
3. (p. 23 textbook) Find the words in the text that have the following meanings. Write the words in the space provided.
1. becoming larger in size or amount: expanding /ɪkˈspænd/(mở rộng)
2. the movement of people out of cities to the surrounding areas: counter-urbanisation
/ˈkaʊntə(r) ˌɜːbənaɪˈzeɪʃn /(phi đô thị hóa)
3. became twice as big or twice as many: doubled/ˈdʌbl/(gấp đôi)
4. a rise in size, amount or degree: increase/ɪnˈkriːs/(tăng)
5. go to live in another area or country: migrate/maɪˈɡreɪt/(di cư)
Act. 3: Fill in each blank with a suitable word/ phrase.
1. Many people choose to leave their home village to _____ better job opportunities in Ho Chi Minh city.
2. What’s the balanced _____ of food we eat every day, sir?
3. As population move to more _____ areas, the immediate outcome is urbanization.
4. Some of the biggest cities are losing population because people go back to live in rural areas. This is known as _____ .
5. Accidents _____ almost every day on this road due to a lack of warning signs for construction dangers ahead.
6. The population of this city has _____ from 15 million to 20 million in the last five years.
1. seek 2. proportion 3. developed 4. counter-urbanisation
5. occur 6. increased 7. scale 8. doubled
Act. 4: Supply the corect form of the words in brackets.
1. Since the renovation policy launched in 1986, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, has experienced the fastest _____ process. (urban)
2. As the world continues to _____ , sustainable development depends increasingly on the successful management of urban growth. (urban)
3. Polluted smoke released from _____ zones causes harmful effects on local people’s health. (industry)
4. Poorly-paid manual jobs in the countryside are one of the push factors that drive these farmers to _____ to big cities. (migration)
5. _____ countries are less industrially advanced than countries classified as high-income, or developed countries. (develop)
6. Job _____ nowadays should learn one more language, know how to use a computer and have expertise knowledge in their field in order to have better career prospects. (seek)
1. urbanisation 2. urbanize 3. industrial
4. migrate 5. developing 6. seekers
Act. 5: Make sentences with 4 words you’ve learnt.
+ Learn the words/ phrases by heart.
+ Make 4 sentences with the words/ phrases you've learnt.
+ Do exercises 1 + 2 + 3 / page 24 – textbook (Lesson: Speaking).
* New words and expressions:
1. overcrowded (a) /ˌəʊvəˈkraʊdɪd/
/ˌəʊvəˈpɒpjuleɪtɪd/ (quá đông người )
3. densely /ˈdensli/ (adv) in a way that contains a lot of people, things, plants, etc. with little space between them (đông lúc, dày đặc)
à densely populated (a) đông dân
4. infrastructure (n) /ˈɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r)/ the basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organization to run smoothly, for example buildings, transport and water and power supplies (cơ sở hạ tầng)
5. traffic congestion (n.phr) /ˈtræfɪk kənˈdʒestʃən/ ùn tắt giao thông
6. flooded (with) (a) /ˈflʌdɪd/containing a large amount or number of something = full of: ngập tràn, đến tới tấp
7. jobless /ˈdʒɒbləs/ = unemployed /ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪd/ (a) without a job (thất nghiệp)
8. facility /fəˈsɪləti/ (n) buildings, services, equipment, etc. that are provided for a particular purpose: tiện nghi, phương tiện
* Useful languages:
1. Expressing the opinions.
I think…. I believe….
I feel…. I suppose….
I guess…. According to me….
In my view…. In my opinion….
In my eyes…. It seems to me that….
From my perspective…. From my point of view….
From my view point…. As far as I’m concerned….
Personally, I think…. I’d like to point out that….
2. Expressing the agreement.
I agree…. Definitely….
Absolutely…. I see your point….
That’s true…. I totally agree….
I couldn’t agree more…. I see what you are getting at….
I see exactly what you mean…. Actually, I think you’re right….
Well, I agree with you here
3. Expressing the disagreement.
I see your point, but…. I see what you are getting at, but….
I completely disagree…. Umm, I’m not sure about that….
I don’t really agree with that idea…. You could say that, however….
I still have my doubts…. That’s out of question….
Well, I don’t quite agree with you… We don’t seem to agree here….
That’s not always true…. I don’t think so….
I’m afraid, I disagree….
4. Present the positive and negative features of city life.
The only problem is that….
It is important/vital/ necessary that….
Firstly/ Secondly/ Next/ Lastly / ….
In addition/ Moreover/